1. THE DIVISION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Chronology:Emperor Trajan (98-117)
He expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent: from the British Isles and the rivers Rhine and Danube in Europe to the river Tigris in Asia and the Sahara Desert in Africa
In 395 he divided the Empire into two parts:
- The Western Roman Empire, with the capital in Rome.
- The Eastern Roman Empire, with the capital in Constantinople.
After his death, his sons, Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and Western halves respectively. Empire was never again re-united.
2. THE EASTERN AND WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
- The Eastern Roman Empire:
Lasted until 1453 with the name of Byzantine Empire.
- The Western Roman Empire:
- The invasions of Germanic tribes:
This is the end of the Roman Empire and of ancient history, and the beginning of the Middle Ages, that lasted till the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453) or the discovery of America (1492).
- Germanic kingdoms
After 476 AD various Germanic kingdoms had settled in the territories of the former Roman Empire.
The most important kingdoms and kings were:
- The Franks in Gaul :
- The Visigoths in Hispania:
- The Ostrogoths in the Italian Peninsula:
Theodoric the Great (493-526).
3. ISLAM: A NEW CIVILISATION
In The sixth century a new religion emerged in Arabia that followed the teachings of Muhammad
In the seventh century, the Muslims, followers of this religion, conquered a number of territories that had been part of the eastern and Western Roman Empire
Three civilizations shared the territories of the former Roman Empire:
- The Byzantines in the East
- The Catholic kingdoms in the West
- The Muslims in the East and South.